Monday, May 25, 2020

The Punctuation Effect Definition and Examples

The use of laughter as the oral equivalent of punctuation at the end of a spoken phrase or sentence. The term punctuation effect was coined by neuroscientist Robert R. Provine in his book Laughter: A Scientific Investigation (Viking, 2000). See Examples and Observations, below. Examples and Observations [Uncle Emil] was a big, rough, hearty man who was missing one whole finger and part of another from accidents in the steel mill, and his language was goodhearted, loud, punctuated by laughter, and not at all suited for Sunday school. (Michael Novak, Controversial Engagements. First Things, April 1999) During conversation, laughter by speakers almost always follows complete statements or questions. Laughter is not randomly scattered throughout the speech stream. Speaker laughter interrupted phrases in only 8 (0.1 percent) of 1,200 laugh episodes. Thus, a speaker may say, You are going where? . . . ha-ha, but rarely You are going . . . ha-ha . . . where? This strong and orderly relationship between laughter and speech is akin to punctuation in written communication and is termed the punctuation effect. . . .The punctuation effect holds for the audience as well as for the speaker; a surprising result because the audience could laugh at any time without speech-related competition for their vocalization channel. No audience interruptions of speaker phrases were observed in our 1,200 laugh episodes. Its unclear whether the punctuation of speech by audience laughter is cued directly by the speaker (e.g., apostphrase pause, gesture, or laughter), or by a brain mechanism similar to that pr oposed for the speaker that maintains the dominance of language (this time perceived, not spoken) over laughter. The brains of speaker and audience are locked in a dual-processing mode.(Robert R. Provine, Laughter: A Scientific Investigation. Viking, 2000) [The] punctuation effect is highly reliable and requires the coordination of laughing with the linguistic structure of speech, yet it is performed without the conscious awareness of the speaker. Other airway maneuvers, such as breathing and coughing, also punctuate speech and are performed without speaker awareness. (Robert R. Provine in What We Believe but Cannot Prove: Todays Leading Thinkers on Science in the Age of Uncertainty, ed. by John Brockman. HarperCollins, 2006) Glitches in the Punctuation Effect The shared rhythm of laughter-inducing comments and responses--comment/laughter . . . comment/laughter, similar to a call-response pattern in gospel music--suggests a powerful, neurologically based attachment/affiliation dance in action, such as that described by Stern (1998).Others have noted, and Temple Grandin has described in her autobiography on dealing with her own autism, what happens when there is a glitch in this processing mode. Grandin says that being autistic has meant she is not able to follow the social rhythm of laughter. Other people will laugh together and then talk quietly until the next laughing cycle. She inadvertently interrupts or starts laughing at the wrong places . . ..(Judith Kay Nelson, What Made Freud Laugh: An Attachment Perspective on Laughter. Routledge, 2012) Filler Laughs When paying for food in Leipzig, I was struck by how much of my daily interaction was punctuated by laughter that was totally detached from what I was doing. I would buy some beer and cookies and give the clerk a twenty-euro note; inevitably, the clerk would ask if I had exact change because Germans are obsessed with both exactness and money. I would reach into my pocket and discover I had no coins, so I would reply, Um--heh heh heh. No. Sorry. Ha! Guess not. I made these noises without thinking. Every single time, the clerk would just stare at me stoically. It had never before occurred to me how often I reflexively laugh; only in the absence of a response did I realize I was laughing for no reason whatsoever. It somehow felt comfortable. Now that I’m back in the U.S., I notice this all the time: People half-heartedly chuckle throughout most casual conversations, regardless of the topic. It’s a modern extension of the verbalized pause, built by TV laugh tracks. Everyone in America has three laughs: a real laugh, a fake real laugh, and a filler laugh they use during impersonal conversations. We have been trained to connect conversation with soft, interstitial laughter. It’s our way of showing the other person that we understand the context of the interaction, even when we don’t. (Chuck Klosterman, Eating the Dinosaur. Scribner, 2009) Victor Borges Phonetic Punctuation [T]his punctuation effect is not nearly as strong as Provine has stated above. But his usage points out the possibility of other intrusions as well into spoken discourse, e.g., as in a statement such as The church bell just outside the window punctuated the pauses in their conversation. For the most part, however, punctuation remains part of the silent world of the written. The only exception to this that we know of is the extraordinarily idiosyncratic system of oral punctuation for spoken discourse devised by the comedian/pianist Victor Borge (1990), his so-called Phonetic Punctuation. His facetious explanation was that his system would prevent the frequent misunderstandings in oral conversations. He used brief vocalized sounds as intrusions into the speech stream for each of the types of punctuation as he read aloud. The effect was a cacophonous and unusually humorous chain of sounds that truly intruded upon the stream of spoken discourse and hacked it into small pieces. The extrao rdinary redundancy had the effect of reducing the message itself to background noise--for the sake of the humorous. And in the course of time, this presentation has become one of Borges most popular routines. (Daniel C. OConnell and Sabine Kowal, Communicating with One Another: Toward a Psychology of Spontaneous Spoken Discourse. Springer, 2008) Each of the pause markers we customarily use--commas, periods, dashes, ellipsis, exclamation points, question marks, parentheses, colons, and semicolons--suggests a different kind of beat. Victor Borge built a career on illustrating the differences among them with a comedy routine he called phonetic punctuation. As he spoke, hed sound out the punctuation marks we usually glide over silently. A period was a loud thwok, an exclamation mark was a descending squeak followed by a thwok, and so on.Maybe you had to be there. But from a writers point of view, Borge made an important point. Try following his lead and sound out each punctuation mark in your mind. Periods create the sharp, crisp break of a karate chop. Commas suggest the smoother rise and fall of a speed bump. Semicolons hesitate for a second and then flow forward. Dashes call a sudden halt. Ellipses ooze along like spilled honey. (Jack R. Hart, A Writers Coach: The Complete Guide to Writing Strategies That Work. Anchor Books, 2007)

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Nature Vs. Nurture And Issues That People Pass Thought...

In the movie directed by Tyler Perry there is a story that begins in an elegant weeding for Alice’s daughter named Andrea. Charlotte a wealthy woman organized the weeding because of her friendship with Alice. In reality, the problem begins at this point because Andrea was complaining about how she looks, for her the dress of her mother didn’t have any special meaning. She wanted to have an elegant and expensive dress. She was an ungrateful and selfish person because at this point she looks ambitious. She wanted to have more than the love of a family, the people in your life that will be always there for you. In addition, some of the issues show in this movie are infidelity, poverty, unemployment, deception, and the disease of Alzheimer. Consequently, I believe that nature vs. nurture and issues that people pass thought affects how people are. Primary, nature refers to all of the genes and hereditary factors that influence why we are the way we are from our physical appe arance to our personality characteristics. For example, the characteristics that people have like, eyes color; hair color, skin color and height are some factors that form the personality of each individual. In others words, that sometimes people feel special when they have something different such as eyes color. In addition, being kind is another nature factor that influences the personality of every person. For instance, in the movie â€Å"The family that preys together† Charlotte shows kindness with her friendShow MoreRelatedNature Vs. Nurture Debate2114 Words   |  9 PagesNature vs. Nurture Albert Camus once said, â€Å"Man is the only creature who refuses to be what he is.† But what makes man what he is? Is it his sheer genetic makeup, or is it the way he was raised? The nature vs. nurture debate has raged on for centuries, but neither side has been able to prove their point indefinitely. Even today we see displays of the contrast between genetics and learned behaviors, some of which are athletics, intelligence, medical histories, etc. Every person is completelyRead MoreThe Basics Of Personality Theory2545 Words   |  11 Pagespersons’ personality as, â€Å"the set of emotional qualities, ways of behaving, etc., that makes a person different from other people.† Now, putting those two concepts together, this paper will discuss personality theory. There are six major ideas that make up the basics of personality theory. The six major ideas that make up the basics of personality theory are, nature versus nurture, the unconscious, view of self, development, motivation, and maturation. These six ideas can also be categorized into twoRead MoreLifespan Development : Cognitive, And Personal And Social Development1717 Words   |  7 Pagestoddlerhood, middle childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, late adulthood and death. There are several key issues in Lifespan Psychology which are centered on these following factors which are; cultural factors, continuous vs discontinuous change, critical periods vs sensitive periods, lifespan approach vs particular periods approach, nature vs nurture. The major theoretical perspectives in Lifespan Psychology is termed a broad, organized explanation and prediction concerning phenomenaRead MoreThe Nature Nurture Controversy : 20th Century Present3499 Words   |  14 Pages History of the Nature-Nurture Controversy: 20th Century-Present Mary Truong University of Regina The nature-nurture controversy is an age-old dispute that has been debated since at least the time of Hippocrates (460-377 B.C.E). According to the nature stance, who we are as individuals, that is, our physical characteristics, personality, intelligence, and how we behave, is biologically inherited, now known through our genetics. Hippocrates for instance, posited that humanRead MoreEssay about Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection and Social Darwinism2627 Words   |  11 Pageshas heard of Charles Darwin and his theory of evolution. Since the publishing of his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in 1859, Darwin’s ideas have been debated by everyone from scientists to theologians to ordinary lay-people. Today, though there is still severe opposition, evolution is regarded as fact by most of the scientific community and Darwin’s book remains one of the most influential ever written. Its influence has even extended into realms otherRead MorePsy 244 Essay10464 Words   |  42 Pagesmultiple-choice or true-false style, but they are a good sampling of questions that will be worked into those styles for the examination. If you can answer these questions, you should be well-prepared for the examination. To give you an idea about how they will be changed into multiple-choice or true-false format, a few sample questions are provided. The test will consist of about 75 questions, so obviously they will represent a sampling of those listed in this Guide. Note that many of theRead MoreMental Health And Its Effects On Health5556 Words   |  23 Pagesdiagnosed with a mental illness, it is important to remember that they are not their disorder and that their disorder is a separate entity from themselves. If we believe in in the myth that human biology is unchanging then we fail to believe that people with mental illness can overcome their disorder. Unfortunately as history shows, it was once believed that human biology was unchanging and therefore those diagnosed with a mental illness could not be helped so social workers or psychiatrists wouldRead Moreis poverty the main factor affect crime5090 Words   |  21 Pagesand poverty is the state of being extremely poor and being without things, having little money, not many material possessions and the need of essential goods. Being poor means people have nothing and struggle to survive every day. Some sociologist have suggest that being tortured with poverty after a while leads to evil t houghts and the struggle of being in the poverty cycle committing crimes gradually becomes a new way of them wanting to break out of the poverty cycle some say there a high correlationRead MoreThis is an chapter by chapter summary of the book Becoming Attached, did it for extra credit11157 Words   |  45 PagesChapter 1: Mother-Love: Worst-Case Scenarios The human need to have our mother near is the theory that is expressed in chapter one. Chapter one goes through a time line of how we, as humans, came across this theory. The author tends to talk about and describe how as babies the basic need to have mother around is just as important as having food, water, and clean diapers. The author gives examples of children who were adopted after infancy and children whom had to spend significant amounts of timeRead MorePsychology Workbook Essay22836 Words   |  92 PagesPsychologists study emotions and mental processes. _____ Psychology and common sense lead to the same conclusions about behavior and mental processes. _____ Psychology is not a science. Objective I.2 Define the scientific method, and explain how it is used in psychology? Psychologists use the scientific method to evaluate competing ideas; find relationship of variables by collecting data |Margin Learning Question(s) (if applicable)

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Comparison of Baroque and Rococo Styles - 1561 Words

HUM – 121 March 5, 2012 Comparison of Baroque and Rococo styles Introduction Premises and characteristics of Baroque Caravaggios Amor Victorious Emergence of Rococo Bouchers Nude on a Sofa Comparison of Baroque and Rococo styles Bibliography There have been different artistic peaks throughout the history of humanity influenced by specific social, political or religious situations of the time. Those peaks shaped by certain styles had an important impact on art as we know it today. One of the most recognized styles of art of seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Europe were Baroque and Rococo styles.†¦show more content†¦After Louis XIV died in the year 1715 the social situation in France somewhat change. Political life and private morals relaxes as five years old Louis XV comes to throne. Many aristocrats move from the court of Versailles to Paris. Reaction against the formal style centered at Louis XIV Versailles provide basis for a new style to develop. Baroque designs that were in style before, gave way to lighter elements with more natural patterns. Rococo reflected the new taste for more delicate decoration for smaller, more comfortable interiors of town houses in Paris. First as interior decoration and d esign Rococo style would later expand and influence the other parts of art. It also spread around the Europe but its acceptance was tied to religion and class. First, Rococo style appears in interior decoration and design. It took pleasure in asymmetry by leaving elements unbalanced. Design elements as ornaments, leaves, flowers and curving lines were used to decorate the walls and ceilings and would made them look like fleeting illusions. That taste was new to European style. Though Rococo originated in the decorative arts, the style showed clearly in painting. Painters used delicate colors and curving forms, decorating their works with myths of love. The soft colors and elegant forms, provided a perfect accompaniment to the Rococo interiors for which they were intended. The asymmetrical compositions, pastoral landscapes and aristocracy inShow MoreRelatedPà ©rola Barroca the Imperfect Art : Baroque Essay813 Words   |  4 Pages‘pà ©rola Barroca’ , this word means Art works of Baroque which is came from Portuguese. In English, pà ©rola Barroca means distorted pearl. Although, the name of Baroque’s origin is not uncertain, people who lived in late 17c to early 18c might named for Baroque Arts pà ©rola Barroca for its imperfection and roughness. The age of late 17c to early 18c was very chaotic and contradictory society. Absolute Monarch and Revolutions for free and right were co-existed. In most countries, Absolute Monarch wasRead MoreGertrude Stein By Pablo Picasso And The Toilet Of Venus898 Words   |  4 Pagescontrast to the brightly colored image provided by Boucher of Madame de Pompadour. 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Henry IV encouraged marked strides in the arts by creating free workshops in the Louvre, and also provided apartments to theseRead More An Age of Reason, An Age of Passion Essay1147 Words   |  5 Pages(Stewart et. al, 156). We are witnessing the birth of the Rococo style. The name Rococo is probably a combination of the words barocco, rocaille, and coquille, referring to the rocks and shells motifs—frequently used in the art of the period. The Rococo style is characterized by a more relaxed style, where the straits lines and right-angles— characteristics for Lois XIV’s austere period at Versailles—were replaced by the gentle curving of Rococo forms. In this relaxed atmosphere, private salon entertainmentRead MoreEssay about French Baroque 1600c.e.-1750c.e.957 Words   |  4 Pages French Baroque 1600-1750 Europe in the 1600s was at the end of Counter Reformation, and as the political and cultural shifts took place, we begin to see art, particularly in France, influenced more and more, by the ruling monarchy. The transition from Mannerism into Baroque is not clear, but eventually the arts started to adopt a new look. And feel. Paintings started to become more exuberant, dynamic and ornamented. The scale of work produced during this time increased dramatically. Where MannerismRead MoreComparing Frans Snyders Deer Hunting And Frida Kahlo s The Wounded Deer1423 Words   |  6 PagesSnyders and Kahlo: A Contrasting Comparison The study of the humanities from the Baroque to the 20th century has given me the ability to compare and contrast art, literature, and other mediums as well as being able to analyze works with my own interpretations. I have chosen two paintings to compare and contrast for this essay: Frans Snyders’ Deer Hunting and Frida Kahlo’s The Wounded Deer. Deer Hunting was painted in 1631 in Belgium during the Baroque period. The Wounded Deer was painted in 1946Read MoreComparison Of Works By Adriaen Van De Venne And Gabriel De Saint Aubin1540 Words   |  7 Pages Comparison of Works by Adriaen van de Venne and Gabriel de Saint-Aubin I. Introduction II. Thesis III. Background a. Gabriel de Saint-Aubin b. Adriaen van de Venne IIII. Differences and similarities V. Conclusions a. Introduction The following paper is going to be focused on the work (and comparison of it) of the two, while relatively unknown to the public, but nevertheless fine artists of their time: Gabriel de Saint-Aubin and Adriaen van de Venne, whose paintings â€Å"Merry Company in an Arbor†Read MoreANALYSIS OF ANGELICA KAUFFMAN ‘TELEMACHUS ON HIS RETURN TO HIS MOTHER’ 1770-1780 OIL ON CANVAS 1325 Words   |  6 PagesThe 18th century is well known for its complex artistic movements such as Romantism and Neo-classical. The leading style Rococo thrived from 1700-1775 and was originated from the French words rocaille and coquille which meant â€Å"rock† and â€Å"shell†; used to decorate the Baroque gardens1. Identified as the age of â€Å"Enlightenment†, philosophers would ignite their ideas into political movements1. Associated with this movement is England’s John Locke who advanced the concept of â€Å"empiricism†. This denotesRead MoreArt Final Paper 201 - After the Renaissance1485 Words   |  6 PagesArt 201 Professor Wilson May 6th 2012 Final Paper- Comparison between two works of art Pompeo Girolamo Batoni Diana and Cupid 1761 and Corrado Giaquinto The Lamentation 1740’s Neoclassical Art was an art form that followed the Baroque and Rococo art periods. Neoclassicism was a way for artists to display their wish to return to meaningful art, to escape the frivolity of landscapes and still life paintings, and paint something that had a moral, educational or inspirational value to theRead MoreClassical Composers : Luigi Boccherini And Ludwig Van Beethoven1115 Words   |  5 Pagesdirection; he sought to master counterpoint – counterpoint being the relationship between voices that are harmonically polyphony yet independent in rhythm and contour. This was European classical tradition, and much of the common practice of the Baroque period. Beethoven lost his hearing around 1798; having the cause of his deafness unknown, his hearing only partially recovered and during its gradual decline, was impeded by a severe form of tinnitus – the hearing of sound when no external sound is

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Character Analysis Abigail Kirk Beatie Bow free essay sample

Abigail Kirk This character is Abigail Kirk, who is the protagonist of the story. For the first ten years her life, she was Lynette Kirk, â€Å"happy as a lark†, and â€Å"hot-headed rag of a child†. She â€Å"vibrated with devotion† for many things, and was wrapped around her father’s fingers until he left her and her mother, Kathy, for another woman. She then stopped answering to Lynette, or any of the nicknames that reminded her of the betrayal that she suffered. One day, just to spite her grandmother, who incidentally has a spooky habit of speaking to her perm, and whom she shares an unspoken agreement to hate each other, she decided she wanted to adopt a name that was associated with witches, thus Lynette became Abigail, â€Å" from now on I’m Abigail Kirk and as soon as I am old enough, I will change the Kirk too†. Abigail is a private child, a reserved girl, keeping everyone at arm’s length. We will write a custom essay sample on Character Analysis Abigail Kirk Beatie Bow or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page She is considered an outsider, and she didn’t care for friends. She was hurt after her father’s betrayal, and started pushing everyone away for fear of being hurt again. â€Å"She carefully laid false trails into her secret heart†, â€Å"yet when she grows older, she longs for someone to laugh at the false trails with†. Even though she hates her father, she still loves him. She misunderstands her parents’ situation, being only fourteen, and holds a grudge against her mother for going back to her father and agreeing to move to Norway, â€Å"he whistles and she goes back like a well trained dog†. Abigail is close to Natalie as she reminds Abigail a little of what she used to be when she was younger. She is protective of Natalie, who adores Vincent without restraint, therefore allowing her to be hurt by him. Beatie and Abigail have a love-hate relationship due to Abigail blaming Beatie for bringing her to the 18th century Sydney, and Beatie’s refusal to help Abigail get home, and Abigail threatening to tell Granny that Beatie has the gift. Abigail dislikes her Grandmother, who wears glittery scarves and high heels, who picks on Abigail on every opportunity, and bullies Kathy. Apparently, Grandmother also used to pick on Weyland Kirk, Abigail’s father, and talks to her perm. Abigail is portrayed as a fourteen year old girl for most of the story, who keeps everyone away for fear of being hurt, and conceals her heart beneath a layer of impenetrable ice. She doesn’t understand the true meaning of love, and she has, according to her, â€Å"missed her mother’s winning quaintness, and her father’s ash blond distinction. † She despairs of her figure ever arriving, â€Å"she is as thin and flat as a board† with a narrow brown face, and coffee black eyes.

Monday, April 6, 2020

All About Like

All About Like All About Like All About Like By Mark Nichol Like is one of the most versatile of words, with senses encompassing multiple parts of speech. Here’s a review of its various meanings and uses. As a verb, like means â€Å"enjoy,† â€Å"feel affection for,† â€Å"regard favorably,† â€Å"thrive in,† or â€Å"wish to have.† It can also mean â€Å"approve† or â€Å"prefer.† The noun like refers to preference or something that one likes. In recent years, it has acquired the sense of â€Å"an acknowledgment given online in approval of content another person has posted.† The word appears as a noun in idiomatic phrases such as those in â€Å"We haven’t seen the likes of him for a long time† (meaning â€Å"Someone resembling him hasn’t been seen for a long time†) and â€Å"She’s partial to lavender and the like† (meaning â€Å"She’s partial to lavender and things that are similar to it†). As an adjective, like means â€Å"possessing the same or similar characteristics or qualities,† as in â€Å"They finally admitted that they did not have enough like interests to sustain a relationship.† As a suffix, it has an adjectival function. Treatment depends on what precedes it. Most words with the suffix are closed, with no hyphenation, as in â€Å"birdlike movements.† However, if the base word ends with l (â€Å"the cell-like room†) or is a proper noun (â€Å"a Christ-like bearing†), employ a hyphen. The adverb like, stands in for approximately or nearly, as in â€Å"It was more like a dark orange than a pale red.† When informally referring to measurements, the adverb is sometimes used interjectionally: â€Å"It was, like, as long as my arm† or â€Å"He seems to come around every few years, like.† Similarly, it is parenthetically employed in conversational English for emphasis (â€Å"I was, like, astonished†) or, paradoxically, to suggest an offhandedness (â€Å"They were, like, hoping somebody would offer them a ride†). Casually, it can also mean probably, as in â€Å"I’ll be there in time, like enough.† The preposition like means â€Å"comparable,† â€Å"similar,† or â€Å"typical†; that’s the part of speech that is essential in a simile such as â€Å"The grass, ruffled by the wind, looked like a rolling wave.† As a conjunction, like means â€Å"the same as† or appears in place of â€Å"as if† (â€Å"She looked like she was about to cry†). Informally, it is employed similarly to the casual adverb to introduce a quotation, paraphrase, or thought (â€Å"He’s like ‘Don’t even think about leaving now’†) or, following it’s, to express a widely held opinion (â€Å"It’s like, it’s not going to make any difference.†) As a preposition, like is often considered inferior to or even improper as a substitute for â€Å"such as,† but as with some other supposedly undesirable usages, this is acceptable in even formal prose. The adjective like derives from the Old English term gelic, meaning â€Å"similar.† Most of the other parts of speech derived from this usage, but the verb stems from lician, which means â€Å"please† or â€Å"be pleasing or sufficient†; the connection is perhaps that to be sufficient is to be suitable, which is to be similar. Words based on the root like include the following: alike: similar likeable: agreeable likelihood: probability likely: seeming to be right, suitable, or true, or very probable; also, promising or attractive liken: compare likeness: similarity likes: preferences likewise: in the same manner liking: the action or feeling of enjoying a person, place, or thing Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:25 Subordinating ConjunctionsDo you "orient" yourself, or "orientate" yourself?Punctuation Is Powerful

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Validity of interview and personality assessment

Validity of interview and personality assessment Free Online Research Papers The management of human resources has become one of the major challenges of companies. The choice of appropriate selection methods is crucial, mainly as errors in the recruitment process are costly to the companies. The only way to be effective in managing human resources is to use selection methods whose reliability has been proven scientifically. It is not enough to feel a selection method is appropriate for her to be in reality. Certainly, we can consider this insight as a first indication, but not give it great importance, and be especially careful not to turn it into a true belief. In this perspective, the experimental verification of any assessment method is the only rational way that can confirm or deny the validity of an evaluation method. Given the impressive amount of selection methods, each of which claims to be the most effective it is not easy to make a choice. This is especially true; in general, HR professionals do not know the most relevant selection method that they can use. Must we choose, for example, an evaluation method based on its reputation or frequency of use? In this perspective, is a selection method which is known or widely used relevant? What are they really able to predict and to what extent? The purpose of this research is to advise on the effectiveness of selection interviews and personality assessment in decisions related to prediction of job performance. INTRODUCTION The main purpose of the selection process is to select the best applicant from the applicant pool that will perform well in the job. Thus predictability of job performance of the applicant is an essential component of selection thus various measurement tools are used to assess the possibilities of successful candidates, selection interviews, and personality assessment are amongst the widely used. But to safely use a performance predictor method, it is essential that it should have specific scientific references to guarantee maximum efficiency. These benchmarks will verify if the method used measures what it purports to measure. Also it is worthy to note that for selection interviews and personality assessment to be effective job performance predictors they should posses certain essential qualities, and should be used in respect of certain rules and under certain conditions. THE SCIENTIFIC REQUIREMENTS THAT GUARANTEE THE VALIDITY OF ASSESSMENT METHODS AS JOB PERFORMANCE PREDICTORS. As aforementioned it for selection any selection method to play its role of job performance predictor, there should be certain scientific benchmarks that verify if the measure actually measures what it purports to and the measure should be used under certain conditions following a given procedure. Essential qualities of job performance predictors The first criterion concerns the psychometric qualities which are three in number namely; reliability, utility or variability and validity. Reliability is the first of the qualities any job performance predictor should posses. Reliability is obtained when a procedure applied twice to the same subjects gives practically equivalent results.There are three methods to evaluate the reliability of a test, all three based on a correlation study. The first is the method of test-retest, the second is called the uniformity and the third is the method of equivalence The utility or variability of a method of assessment is an essential quality which will help to classify subjects thus discriminating. In other words, the method used should allow drawing a clear cut distinction between subjects that take the assessment on the measure it purports to measure. It is essential that the procedure is neither too difficult nor too easy and it is especially adapted to the population in question. Finally, validity is the last quality that must possess an assessment method. This will be valid if it really brings the expected information necessary for decision making. There are three types of validity: Content validity; which raises the question of whether, the content of the assessment method is the content area of this method is suppose to measure. -Construct validity that will legitimize the value of the tool, it will check if the tool actually develops measures for the phenomenon it is supposed to measure. Predictive validity assesses whether the test can predict behaviour in a work situation. The second criterion is sampling and calibration. Sampling is to determine a population sample on which the assessment method will be calibrated. This is in accordance with the objective of the test and candidates to which it will be applied, the selected sample will be representative of the population as a whole or a specified portion of the population according to age, sex, level of education or function. Benchmarking, meanwhile, is a process to have standards against which to compare issues between them. On the other hand, a reliable method of assessment which can be used by professional safely must necessarily provide reliable reference standards that can allow a single subject to be compared to a group. It is essential that the calibration groups are sufficiently important and most representative. Indeed, the validity of an interpretation depends exclusively on the quality of sampling and representativeness of standards. If these various requirements are not met, it is likely that the valuation method used does not have any guarantee for its user. Terms of use and conditions of administration of job performance predictors The relevance of a job performance predictor requires that we focus on the conditions of use and administration. With these conditions, two concepts are fundamental. The first concerns the standardization and the second concerns the actors who are responsible for their implementation. The standardization of a situation must allow comparison between subjects respecting a number of parameters such as: The psychological conditions of the candidates (reassure the candidates); Compliance level instructions (the transmission must be the same for each candidate); -Compliance with environmental conditions (the environment must be the same and most appropriate for each candidate), the full standardization of a situation does not exist and the only ambition is to approach it. It is not enough that the tools meet scientific requirements, nor that there exist standardized situations. It also requires that the assessment methods are chosen carefully and used in conditions where professionalism and ethics should prevail. THE VALIDITY AND UTILITY OF THE SELECTION INTERVIEW AND PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT This section is devoted to the level of validity of the main methods of assessment used in a context of professional prognosis. These data are derived from a synthesis of scientific literature on the subject. The selection interview The interview as a job performance predictor has always occupied the first place. But according to numerous studies, it is not a technique as reliable as one might think. However, the interview as a job performance predictor tool is absolutely essential but it might be wiser to give it less weight in decision making. The majority of work indicates that the traditional interview (unstructured, semi-structured interview and direct interviews) has low reliability, poor validity and unlike structured and situational interviews, which are conceived after propal job analysis have stronger reliability and validity. The low relevance of the traditional interview is simple to understand and, for a number of reasons. On the one hand, the lack of interview guide contributes to increase the difficulty of asking the same questions to each candidate. On the other hand, the situations are not standardized and therefore it is quite possible that the change of environment in which each candidate takes the interview, may distort the content of the interview. In addition, to the contrast effect do not forget that in reality, consultants or hiring managers rarely perform interviews in a single day. According to multiple studies, it appears that there is a contrast effect that indicates at least part of the assessment of the interviewee would be due to the quality of interviewees who immediately proceeded. What may seem surprising is the preponderance of traditional interview as a job performance predictor and selection method while its reliability is low. Despite this finding, the aim is not to abandon maintenance on the contrary, but make sure to increase its reliability and validity. By conducting a job analysis of the position in order to develop a guide that might help to ask only questions related to the position vacant. The reliability of the interview will be even better. The validity can be improved by training the interviewers through seminars, on interview techniques. Knowing the shortcomings of an interview, but also be able to better combat them. Personality assessment Personality assessment includes all tests using the cognitive and affective aspects of personality. There are two types of personality assessments used in selection: the personality questionnaires and projective tests. While personality tests and projective techniques assess personality, these two methods are fundamentally different. Thus, if the projective tests part of a comprehensive approach to personality, personality tests are part of a much more analytical approach, which decomposes the personality traits such as Extraversion, Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience which is a five factor model widely accepted taxonomy of personality(Rothstein Goffin,2006). Murphy (2000) has provided an analysis of the key issues to consider justifying making inferences from meta-analyses for research or personnel selection. These issues are (a) the quality of the data base and the quality of the primary studies it contains; (b) whether the studies included in the meta-analysis are representative of the population of potential applications of the predictor; (c) whether a particular test being considered for use is a member of the population of instruments examined in the meta-analysis; and (d) whether the situation intended for use is similar to the situations sampled in the meta-analysis Barrick and Mount found that the estimated true correlation between FFM dimensions of personality and performance across both occupational groups and criterion types ranged from .04 for Openness to Experience to .22 for Conscientiousness. Although correlations in this range may seem relatively modest, nevertheless these results provided a more optimistic view of the potential of personality for predicting job performance and this study had an enormous impact on researchers and practitioners (Mount Barrick,1998; Murphy,1997, 2000). In addition, there is a continuing debate on whether or not such â€Å"broad† personality dimensions are more or less effective than narrow (i.e., specific traits) personality measures for predicting job performance (see below for a review of this ongoing debate). Once again, it is not possible to review in this context all the controversies and debate surrounding how well the FFM represents the structure of personality. However, for researchers and practitioners interested in the use of personality measures in personnel selection, it is important to recognize that there is more to personality than the FFM. The choice of personality measure to use in a selection context should consider a number of factors, not the least of which is the development of a predictive hypothesis on the relations expected between the personality measure and the performance criterion of interest (Rothstein Jelley, 2003). Two other issues made salient by the contribution of meta-analytic studies to understanding personality–job performance research concern the importance of acknowledging the bidirectional nature of much more potential personality – job performance relations, and appreciating the potential role of moderators between personality and performance criteria. The projective methods based on the notion of perceptual mechanism and consist of a set of tests that will help from a more or less structured material an emotional release, a projection of the personality of the subject in the test. These techniques allow a holistic evaluation i.e. the overall personality, which is regarded as a dynamic evolving. Mastery of these methods requires a long training which usually lasts several years after a complete course in psychology In summary, despite the controversy surrounding the meta-analysis and the FFM, the weight of the meta-analysis evidence clearly leads to the conclusion that the measures of personality may be a significant contributor to the prediction of job performance. The impact of these meta-analysis has opposed the earlier findings of Guion and Gottier (1965) and put the personality back into research and practice. In the decade or more since these meta-analysis began to be published research of personality and job performance has continued, creating a wealth of understanding and implications for the use of personality measures in personnel selection. We review the important future trends in this research, with particular emphasis on implications for research and practice in human resource management. Although criticism of the FFM continues, many researchers have accepted it as a reasonable taxonomy of personality characteristics and moved beyond the basic question of whether personality predicts job performance to examine more specific applications (Rothstein Jelley, 2003). Simmering, Colquitt, Noe, and Porter (2003) determined that Conscientiousness was positively related to employee development, but only when employees felt that the degree of autonomy in their jobs did not fit their needs. The importance of a confirmatory research strategy was reinforced by Nikolaou (2003) who reported that although FFM dimensions were not generally related to overall job performance, Agreeableness were related to performance involving interpersonal skills. Hochwarter, Witt, and Kacmar (2000) determined that Conscientiousness was related to performance when employees perceived high levels of organizational politics, but no relations were found among employees perceiving low levels of organizational politics. Witt, 2002), Extraversion was related to job performance when employees were also high in Conscientiousness, but with employees low in Conscientiousness, Extraversion was negatively related to performance. As Rothstein and Jelly (2003) have argued, personality measures are relatively more situationally specific, compared with a measure of general mental ability. This makes the use of validity generalization principles to justify the use of a personality measure in selection more challenging because there may be numerous situational moderators as the above research illustrates. For human resource researchers and practitioners in personnel selection, the key is careful alignment of personality and performance criteria as well as consideration of other potential contextual factors related to the job or organization. Another potential interpretation of the relatively low correlations typically found between personality measures and job performance criteria, in addition to unknown or unmeasured moderator effects, is that personality may only have indirect effects on performance and that there may be stronger relations with mediator variables that in turn are more strongly related to job performance (Rothstein Jelley, 2003). The logic of this proposition is based on the generally accepted definition of personality as a predisposition to certain types of behavior. Accordingly, if this behavior could be measured directly, such measures may mediate relations between personality and job performance. Only a small number of research studies have been conducted over the past decade, but results support the existence of mediator effects. Collectively these studies illustrate once again that a confirmatory research strategy provides valuable insights to the nature of personality–job performance relations. Such strategies contribute to more comprehensive predictive models and better understanding of how personality affects job performance directly and indirectly. Although relatively few studies of mediator effects have been reported in the literature thus far, existing research indicates that both research and practice in personnel selection would benefit from such studies. Discovering indirect effects of personality on job performance through mediator variables may also help to understand why so many personality–job performance relations are situationally specific which in turn would lead to more effective personnel selection practices. Although repeated meta-analyses have supported the conclusion that personality predicts job performance (Barrick Mount,2003), from the perspective of human resource researchers and practitioners an important question remaining is to what degree is this prediction incremental in validity and value over other personnel selection techniques. Judge, Bono, Ilies, and Gerhardt (2002) determined that Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, and Conscientiousness were all related to leadership criteria (leader emergence and leader effectiveness) with Extraversion being the most consistent predictor across studies. Research Papers on Validity of interview and personality assessmentIncorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in CapitalResearch Process Part OneInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfStandardized TestingOpen Architechture a white paperThree Concepts of PsychodynamicThe Project Managment Office SystemThe Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug UseDefinition of Export Quotas

Friday, February 21, 2020

History of planning and urban design in 20th century Essay

History of planning and urban design in 20th century - Essay Example Why I chose architecture and planning? I cannot give a simple answer for that. Maybe it was because since childhood I have liked painting and construction and have yearned to create things on my own. It seems that architecture and planning can satisfy my imagination in terms of space, creativity, and colour.After my five years of study in the Department of Architecture and Planning and three years’ work experience, I asked myself this same question. The result is that Part of the above factors as well I realized that architecture and planning have an intrinsic appeal for me and that they are not only an art, but also more importantly a kind of technology. I studied architecture and town planning together as I have never thought of them as separate jobs. They are merely two sides of a same coin, the difference being mostly in the scale of the work. As part of my university degree I completed courses in different aspects of architecture and planning such as history of architectu re and urban development, urban transportation planning, urban and landscape infrastructure and services, city planning process. I found these subjects very interesting.   After my graduation I worked as a planning engineer with the Ministry of Transport. The work experience I gained during that period helped to strength my specialization, improve my research skills, integrate my knowledge, and build my leadership skills. As part of my professional development I took additional training courses in various areas such as transportation planning, traffic engineering and scientific research.... The garden city concept combined the town and the country in order to provide the working class an alternative to working on farms or 'crowded, unhealthy cities'. Garden cities were intended to be planned, self-contained, communities surrounded by "greenbelts" (parks), containing proportionate areas of residences, industry, and agriculture (2). Letchworth was the first garden city, in the UK in 1903, followed by Welwyn in 1919. These were small in size, providing for a few thousand residents. In Australia, the suburb of Colonel Light Gardens in Adelaide, South Australia, was designed according to garden city principles. So too was the town of Sunshine, which is now a suburb of Melbourne in Victoria. New towns throughout the world were modeled after these garden cities. This theory was an attempt to improve the appearance of cities and streets by means of architectural and spatial effects. (3)   In 1920 the ideas of modernity began to appear by designer Le Corbusier brought more mod ern ideas and new methods of building and introduced the skyscraper. The main idea was to combine residential home designs with the feel of the city. This was also a way to use modern technologies to eliminate congestion and chaos that was experienced by small cities. This was achieved by and changing the streets to highways and constructing towers set within the gardens. Theories suggest that the center of a great city should consist mainly of skyscrapers – exclusively for commercial use – and these groups of skyscrapers should be set within large, rectangular park-like green spaces. A huge transportation hub sits in the center and includes depots for buses and trains, as well as the highway intersections. This plan segregated pedestrian circulation paths from the roadways and